||1975 – 1980 M.S. Major: Applied Mathematics. Department of the Applied Mathematics, Moscow Technology Institute of Transport, Moscow, USSR. M.S. thesis: “The database management system on minicomputer for collections of microorganisms”.
1984 – 1987 Ph.D. Post-graduate course of the Institute for genetics and selection of industrial microorganisms (“VNIIGenetica”), Moscow, USSR. Ph.D. thesis: “The host genetic control of the lysis-lysogeny decision of lambdoid phages”.
1990 – 1994 Post-doctorate course of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel.